HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
OpenVMS User's Manual
qualifier: A portion of a command string that modifies
a command verb or command parameter by selecting one of several
options. A qualifier, if present, follows the command verb or parameter
to which it applies and is in the format /qualifier[=option]. For
example, in the command string "PRINT filename /COPIES=3,"
the COPIES qualifier indicates that the user wants three copies of a
given file printed.
queue: Either of the following:
random access: A method for retrieving or writing data
in which the location of the data to be retrieved or written is not
dependent on the location of previously retrieved or written data.
Random access refers to memory or mass storage devices on which all
information is equally accessible.
read: The act or capability of an image to accept
data. For example, when a TYPE command is issued, the system reads the
designated file from disk and writes it to the terminal. See also
record file address (RFA): The unique address of a
record in a file. The RFA allows previously accessed records to be
accessed randomly at a subsequent time. This access occurs regardless
of the file organization.
Record Management Services (RMS): See RMS (Record
record-oriented device: A device such as a terminal,
line printer, or card reader. A record-oriented device's physical
record is the largest unit of data that a program can access in one I/O
record sorting: A sorting process in which records are
kept intact and an output file consisting of complete records is
relative file organization: The arrangement of records
in a file in which each record occupies a cell of equal length within a
bucket. Each cell is assigned a successive number, which represents its
position relative to the beginning of the file.
remote node: Any node in a network, other than the
node that you are currently logged in to.
restricted account: A type of OpenVMS account with a
secure login procedure. The user is not allowed to use the Ctrl/Y key
sequence during the system or process login command procedure. Control
may be turned over to the user following execution of the login command
reverse video: A feature of a video terminal that
reverses the default video contrast. If the default display is black
figures on a white background, reverse video displays white figures on
a black background.
RMS (Record Management Services): A set of operating
system procedures that are called by programs to process files and
records within files. RMS allows programs to issue GET and PUT requests
at the record level (record I/O) as well as read and write blocks
(block I/O). RMS is an integral part of the system software; its
procedures run in executive mode.
scrolling: A feature of a video terminal that allows
the display of more than one screen of text by vertical movement. For
example, when the TYPE command is entered, new output appears at the
bottom of the screen as the oldest output disappears off the top.
secondary password: A user password that may be
required at login time immediately after the primary password has been
submitted correctly. Primary and secondary passwords can be known by
separate users to ensure that more than one user is present at the
login. A less common use is to require a secondary password as a means
of increasing the password length so that the total number of
combinations of characters makes password guessing more time-consuming
secure terminal server: OpenVMS software designed to
ensure that users can log in only to terminals that are already logged
out. When the user presses the Break key on a terminal, the secure
terminal server (if enabled) responds by first disconnecting any
logged-in process and then initiating a login. If no process is logged
in at the terminal, the login can proceed immediately.
sequential access mode: The retrieval or storage of
records in which a program reads or writes records one after the other
in the order in which they appear, starting and ending at any arbitrary
point in the file.
sequential file organization: A file organization in
which records appear in the order in which they were originally
written. The records can be fixed or variable length. Records can be
accessed sequentially or randomly by record address. Fixed length
records can also be accessed randomly by relative record number.
simple character: A base character set that can be
used for all the components of a file specification except the version.
software: The collection of images, procedures, rules,
and documentation associated with the operation of a particular
computer system. For example, the operating system is software.
specification file: A command file used in the
Sort/Merge utility to specify the commands and qualifiers needed to
complete a sort operation.
start position qualifier: In EVE, a qualifier you can
use to determine the row and column where the cursor first appears in
the buffer you specify.
string: A connected sequence of characters. When a
text editor searches for a word or phrase in a text file, it is looking
for a string. The character sequence that forms a command is often
called a command string.
subdirectory: A directory file, cataloged in a higher
level directory, that lists additional files belonging to the owner of
subprocess: A subsidiary process created by another
process. The process that creates a subprocess is its owner. A process
and its subprocesses share a pool of quotas and limits. When an owner
process is removed from the system, all its subprocesses (and their
subprocesses) are also removed.
subroutine: A subsidiary routine that executes when
called by another program. A subroutine is often called repeatedly
until a certain condition is met.
symbol: An entity that, when defined, represents a
particular function or entity (for example, a command string, directory
name, or file name) in a particular context.
symbol scope: The set of command procedure levels from
within which the symbol can be accessed.
syntax: The particular form of a command, including
the spelling and the order of qualifiers and parameters. Misspelled
words are the most common syntax errors.
system login command procedure: A procedure that lets
your system manager ensure that certain commands are always executed
when you log in.
system manager: The person who makes resources
available to users and sets up restrictions governing the use of such
system password: A password required by a terminal
before login can be initiated.
terminal: The general name for a peripheral device
that has a keyboard and a video screen or printer. Under program
control, a terminal enables users to type commands and data from the
keyboard and receive messages on the video screen or printer.
timeout: The expiration of the time limit during which
a device is to complete an I/O transfer.
timestamp: A text string that fully specifies a data
and time. For example, 11-DEC-1996 17:13:21.
UAF (user authorization file): The file that holds
details of each account on the system. The UAF contains the user name,
password, user identification code (UIC), quotas, limits, and
privileges assigned to each account.
UFD (user file directory): A file that briefly
catalogs a set of files stored on disk or tape. The UFD includes the
name, type, and version number of each file in the set. It also
contains a unique number that identifies that file's actual location
and points to a list of its file attributes. See also
UIC (user identification code): The pair of numbers
assigned to users, files, global sections, command event flag clusters,
and mailboxes. The UIC specifies the type of access (read, write, or
read/write, and in the case of files, execute, delete, or both)
available to the owner, group, world, and system.
user authorization file (UAF): See UAF (user
user password: A password that is associated with a
user. This password must be correctly supplied when the user attempts
to log in so that the user is approved for access to the system. The
two types of user passwords are primary and secondary; the terms also
represent the sequence in which they are entered.
utility: A program that provides a set of related
general-purpose functions, such as a program development utility (an
editor, a linker), a file management utility (file copy or file format
translation program), or an operations management utility (disk quotas,
version number: The numeric component of a file
specification. When a file is edited, its version number is increased
video terminal: A keyboard and a video screen (or
monitor) to display your interactions with the operating system. See
volume: A mass storage media such as a disk pack or
reel of magnetic tape. The volume is the largest logical unit of the
volume set: The file-structured collection of data
residing on one or more mass storage media.
wildcard character: A nonalphanumeric character such
as an asterisk (*) or percent sign (%) that is used within, or in place
of, a file name, a file type, a directory name, or a version number in
a file specification to indicate "all" for the given field.
write: The act or capability of an image to send data. For example, when a PRINT command is issued, the specified file is read from wherever it is stored and is written to the printer. See also read.