HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
Terminate execution of the program from which they are called. These functions are nonreentrant.
void exit (int status);
void _exit (int status);
statusA status value of EXIT_SUCCESS (1), EXIT_FAILURE (2), or a number from 3 to 255:
- A status value of 1 or EXIT_SUCCESS is translated to the OpenVMS SS$_NORMAL status code to return the OpenVMS success value.
- A status value of 2 or EXIT_FAILURE is translated to an error-level exit status. The status value is passed to the parent process.
- Any other status value is left the same.
To use these status values as described, include <unistd.h> and compile with the _POSIX_EXIT feature-test macro set (either with /DEFINE=_POSIX_EXIT or with #define _POSIX_EXIT at the top of your file, before any file inclusions). This behavior is available only on OpenVMS Version 7.0 and higher systems.
If the process was invoked by DCL, the status is interpreted by DCL, and a message is displayed.
If the process was a child process created using vfork or an exec function, then the child process exits and control returns to the parent. The two functions are identical; the _exit function is retained for reasons of compatibility with VAX C.
The exit and _exit functions make use of the $EXIT system service. If your process is being invoked by the RUN command using any of the hibernation and scheduled wakeup qualifiers, the process might not correctly return to hibernation state when an exit or _exit call is made.
EXIT_SUCCESS and EXIT_FAILURE are portable across any ANSI C compiler to indicate success or failure. On OpenVMS systems, they are mapped to OpenVMS condition codes with the severity set to success or failure, respectively. Values in the range of 3 to 255 can be used by a child process to communicate a small amount of data to the parent. The parent retreives this data using the wait , wait3 , wait4 , or waitpid functions.
Returns the base e raised to the power of the argument.
double exp (double x);
float expf (float x); (ALPHA, I64)
long double expl (long double x); (ALPHA, I64)
double expm1 (double x); (ALPHA, I64)
float expm1f (float x); (ALPHA, I64)
long double expm1l (long double x); (ALPHA, I64)
xA real value.
The exp functions compute the value of the exponential function, defined as e**x, where e is the constant used as a base for natural logarithms.
The expm1 functions compute exp(x) - 1 accurately, even for tiny x.
If an overflow occurs, the exp functions return the largest possible floating-point value and set errno to ERANGE. The constant HUGE_VAL is defined in the <math.h> header file to be the largest possible floating-point value.
x The exponential value of the argument. HUGE_VAL Overflow occurred; errno is set to ERANGE. 0 Underflow occurred; errno is set to ERANGE. NaN x is NaN; errno is set to EDOM.
Returns the absolute value of its argument.
double fabs (double x);
float fabsf (float x); (ALPHA, I64)
long double fabsl (long double x); (ALPHA, I64)
xA real value.
x The absolute value of the argument.
Changes the owner and group of a file.
int fchown (int fildes, uid_t owner, gid_t group);
fildesAn open file descriptor.
ownerA user ID corresponding to the new owner of the file.
groupA group ID corresponding to the group of the file.
The fchown function has the same effect as chown except that the file whose owner and group are to be changed is specified by the file descriptor fildes.
0 Indicates success. - 1 Indicates failure. The function sets errno to one of the following values:
The fchown function will fail if:
- EBADF -- The fildes argument is not an open file descriptor.
- EPERM -- The effective user ID does not match the owner of the file, or the process does not have appropriate privilege.
- EROFS -- The file referred to by fildes resides on a read-only file system.
The fchown function may fail if:
- EINVAL -- The owner or group ID is not a value supported by the implementation.
- EIO -- A physical I/O error has occurred.
- EINTR -- The fchown function was interrupted by a signal that was caught.
Closes a file by flushing any buffers associated with the file control block and freeing the file control block and buffers previously associated with the file pointer.
int fclose (FILE *file_ptr);
file_ptrA pointer to the file to be closed.
When a program terminates normally, the fclose function is automatically called for all open files.
The fclose function tries to write buffered data by using an implicit call to fflush .
If the write fails (because the disk is full or the user's quota is exceeded, for example), fclose continues executing. It closes the OpenVMS channel, deallocates any buffers, and releases the memory associated with the file descriptor (or FILE pointer). Any buffered data is lost, and the file descriptor (or FILE pointer) no longer refers to the file.
If your program needs to recover from errors when flushing buffered data, it should make an explicit call to fsync (or fflush ) before calling fclose .
0 Indicates success. EOF Indicates that the file control block is not associated with an open file.
int fcntl (int file_desc, int request [, int file_desc2]);
file_descAn open file descriptor obtained from a successful open , fcntl , or pipe function.
requestThe operation to be performed.
file_desc2A variable that depends on the value of the request argument.
The fcntl function performs controlling operations on the open file specified by the file_desc argument.
The values for the request argument are defined in the header file <fcntl.h> , and include the following:
F_DUPFD Returns a new file descriptor that is the lowest numbered available (that is, not already open) file descriptor greater than or equal to the third argument ( file_desc2) taken as an integer of type int .
The new file descriptor refers to the same file as the original file descriptor ( file_desc). The FD_CLOEXEC flag associated with the new file descriptor is cleared to keep the file open across calls to one of the exec functions.
The following two calls are equivalent:fid = dup(file_desc);
fid = fcntl(file_desc, F_DUPFD, 0);
Consider the following call:fid = dup2(file_desc, file_desc2);
It is similar (but not equivalent) to:close(file_desc2);
fid = fcntl(file_desc, F_DUPFD, file_desc2);
F_GETFD Gets the value of the close-on-exec flag associated with the file descriptor file_desc. File descriptor flags are associated with a single file descriptor and do not affect other file descriptors that refer to the same file. The file_desc2 argument should not be specified. F_SETFD Sets the close-on-exec flag associated with file_desc to the value of the third argument, taken as type int .
If the third argument is 0, the file remains open across the exec functions, which means that a child process spawned by the exec function inherits this file descriptor from the parent.
If the third argument is FD_CLOEXEC , the file is closed on successful execution of the next exec function, which means that the child process spawned by the exec function will not inherit this file descriptor from the parent.
F_GETFL Gets the file status flags and file access modes, defined in <fcntl.h> , for the file description associated with file_desc. The file access modes can be extracted from the return value using the mask O_ACCMODE, which is defined in <fcntl.h> . File status flags and file access modes are associated with the file description and do not affect other file descriptors that refer to the same file with different open file descriptions. F_SETFL Sets the file status flags, defined in <fcntl.h> , for the file description associated with file_desc from the corresponding bits in the third argument, file_desc2, taken as type int . Bits corresponding to the file access mode and the file creation flags, as defined in <fcntl.h> , that are set in file_desc2 are ignored. If any bits in file_desc2 other than those mentioned here are changed by the application, the result is unspecified.
The only status bit recognized is O_APPEND. Support for O_APPEND is not standard-compliant. The X/Open standard states that "File status flags and file access modes are associated with the file description and do not affect other file descriptors that refer to the same file with different open file descriptions."
However, because the append bit is stored in the FCB, all file descriptors using the same FCB are using the same append flag, so that setting this flag with fcntl(F_SETFL) will affect all files sharing the FCB; that is, all files duplicated from the same file descriptor.
n Upon successful completion, the value returned depends on the value of the request argument as follows:
- F_DUPFD -- Returns a new file descriptor.
- F_GETFD -- Returns FD_CLOEXEC or 0.
- F_SETFD -- Returns a value other than - 1.
- 1 Indicates that an error occurred. The function sets errno to one of the following values:
- EBADF -- The file_desc argument is not a valid open file descriptor and the file_desc2 argument is negative or greater than or equal to the per-process limit.
- EFAULT -- The file_desc2 argument is an invalid address.
- EINVAL -- The request argument is F_DUPFD and the file_desc2 argument is negative or greater than or equal to OPEN_MAX.
Either the OPEN_MAX value or the per-process soft descriptor limit is checked.
An illegal value was provided for the request argument.
- EMFILE -- The request argument is F_DUPFD and OPEN_MAX file descriptors are currently open in the calling process, or no file descriptors greater than or equal to the file_desc2 argument are available.
Either the OPEN_MAX value or the per-process soft descriptor limit is checked.
- ENOMEM -- The system was unable to allocate memory for the requested file descriptor.
Converts its argument to a null-terminated string of ASCII digits and returns the address of the string. The string is stored in a thread-specific location created by the HP C RTL.
char *fcvt (double value, int ndigits, int *decpt, int *sign);
valueAn object of type double that is converted to a null-terminated string of ASCII digits.
ndigitsThe number of ASCII digits after the decimal point to be used in the converted string.
decptThe position of the decimal point relative to the first character in the returned string. The returned string does not contain the actual decimal point. A negative int value means that the decimal point is decpt number of spaces to the left of the returned digits (the spaces are filled with zeros). A 0 value means that the decimal point is immediately to the left of the first digit in the returned string.
signAn integer value that indicates whether the value argument is positive or negative. If value is negative, the fcvt function places a nonzero value at the address specified by sign. Otherwise, the functions assign 0 to the address specified by sign.
The fcvt function converts value to a null-terminated string and returns a pointer to it. The resulting low-order digit is rounded to the correct digit for outputting ndigits digits in C F-format. The decpt argument is assigned the position of the decimal point relative to the first character in the string.
In C F-format, ndigits is the number of digits desired after the decimal point. Very large numbers produce a very long string of digits before the decimal point, and ndigit of digits after the decimal point. For large numbers, it is preferable to use the gcvt or ecvt function so that E-format is used.
Repeated calls to the fcvt function overwrite any existing string.
The ecvt , fcvt , and gcvt functions represent the following special values specified in the IEEE Standard for floating-point arithmetic:
Value Representation Quiet NaN NaNQ Signalling NaN NaNS +Infinity Infinity - Infinity - Infinity
The sign associated with each of these values is stored into the sign argument. In IEEE floating-point representation, a value of 0 (zero) can be positive or negative, as set by the sign argument.
See also gcvt and ecvt .
x A pointer to the converted string.
Associates a file pointer with a file descriptor returned by an open , creat , dup , dup2 , or pipe function.
FILE *fdopen (int file_desc, char *a_mode);
file_descThe file descriptor returned by open , creat , dup , dup2 , or pipe .
a_modeThe access mode indicator. See the fopen function for a description. Note that the access mode specified must agree with the mode used to originally open the file. This includes binary/text access mode ("b" mode on fdopen and the "ctx=bin" option on creat or open ).
The fdopen function allows you to access a file, originally opened by one of the UNIX I/O functions, with Standard I/O functions. Ordinarily, a file can be accessed by either a file descriptor or by a file pointer, but not both, depending on the way you open it. For more information, see Chapters 1 and 2.
pointer Indicates that the operation has succeeded. NULL Indicates that an error has occurred.
Tests a file to see if the end-of-file has been reached.
int feof (FILE *file_ptr);
file_ptrA file pointer.
nonzero integer Indicates that the end-of-file has been reached. 0 Indicates that the end-of-file has not been reached.
Same as feof , except used only within a scope protected by flockfile and funlockfile .
int feof_unlocked (FILE *file_ptr);
file_ptrA file pointer.
The reentrant version of the feof function is locked against multiple threads calling it simultaneously. This incurs overhead to ensure integrity of the stream. The unlocked version of this call, feof_unlocked can be used to avoid the overhead. The feof_unlocked function is functionally identical to the feof function, except that it is not required to be implemented in a thread-safe manner. The feof_unlocked function can be safely used only within a scope that is protected by the flockfile and funlockfile functions used as a pair. The caller must ensure that the stream is locked before feof_unlocked is used.
See also flockfile , ftrylockfile , and funlockfile .
nonzero integer Indicates end-of-file has been reached. 0 Indicates end-of-file has not been reached.