HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
HP Fortran for OpenVMS
After you open a file, if you omit the ADVANCE specifier (or specify ADVANCE= ' YES ' ) in READ and WRITE statements, advancing I/O (normal FORTRAN-77 I/O) will be used for record access. When using advancing I/O:
You can request nonadvancing I/O for the file by specifying the ADVANCE= ' NO ' specifier in a READ and WRITE statement. You can use nonadvancing I/O only for sequential access to external files using formatted I/O (not list-directed or namelist).
When you use nonadvancing I/O, the current record position does not change, and part of the record might be transferred, unlike advancing I/O where one entire record or records are always transferred.
You can alternate between advancing and nonadvancing I/O by specifying different values for the ADVANCE specifier ( ' YES ' and ' NO ' ) in the READ and WRITE record I/O statements.
Because nonadvancing I/O might not read an entire record, it also supports an EOR branch specifier to branch to a specified label when the end of the record is read. If you omit the EOR and the IOSTAT specifiers when using nonadvancing I/O, an error results when the end-of-record is read.
When using nonadvancing input, you can use the SIZE specifier to return the number of characters read. For example, in the following READ statement, SIZE=X (where variable X is an integer) returns the number of characters read in X and an end-of-record condition causes a branch to label 700:
150 FORMAT (F10.2, F10.2, I6) READ (UNIT=20, FMT=150, SIZE=X, ADVANCE='NO', EOR=700) A, F, I
Typically, the data transferred by an I/O statement is read from or written to a single record. It is possible, however, for a single I/O statement to transfer data from or to more than one record, depending on the form of I/O used.
When using advancing I/O, if an input statement specifies fewer data fields (less data) than the record contains, the remaining fields are ignored.
If the output statement specifies more data than the record can contain, an error occurs, as follows:
When an HP Fortran output statement is executed, the record data may not be written immediately to the file or device.
To enhance performance, HP Fortran uses the OpenVMS RMS "write-behind" and "multibuffering" features, which group records together in a memory buffer and delays the actual device write operation until the buffers are full or the file is closed. In most cases, this is desirable (for instance, to minimize disk I/O).
For those applications that depend on data being written to the physical device immediately, "write-behind" and "multibuffering" can result in incomplete data in the case of a power loss or other severe problem that prevents the data being written.
For applications that require guaranteed file consistency for disaster recovery or transactional integrity, the RMS Journaling product is recommended. RMS Journaling provides three types of journaling:
Both After-Image and Before-Image journaling can be used without modifying the application.
Other applications that do not need the degree of safety provided by RMS journaling can use RMS features to cause data to be written to the file or device more frequently. The simplest method is to use the SYS$FLUSH system service to cause RMS to perform all pending writes immediately to disk. This also has the effect of updating the file's end-of-file pointer so that all of the data written up to that point becomes accessible. An application might choose to call SYS$FLUSH at an interval of every hundred records, for example. The more often SYS$FLUSH is called, the more often the file is updated, but the more performance is affected.
When calling SYS$FLUSH, the RMS Record Access Block (RAB) for the file must be passed as an argument. For files opened by HP Fortran (or Compaq Fortran 77), the FOR$RAB intrinsic function may be used to obtain the RAB. For example:
INTEGER (KIND=4) :: FOR$RAB, IUNIT . . . IREC_COUNT = 0 DO WHILE (....) . . . WRITE (IUNIT) DATA IREC_COUNT = IREC_COUNT + 1 IF (IREC_COUNT .EQ. 100) THEN CALL SYS$FLUSH(%VAL(FOR$RAB(IUNIT))) IREC_COUNT = 0 END IF END DO
This chapter describes:
During execution, your program may encounter errors or exception conditions. These conditions can result from errors that occur during I/O operations, from invalid input data, from argument errors in calls to the mathematical library, from arithmetic errors, or from system-detected errors.
The HP Fortran Run-Time Library (RTL) provides default processing for error conditions, generates appropriate messages, and takes action to recover from errors whenever possible. However, you can explicitly supplement or override default actions by using the following methods:
The HP Fortran RTL contains condition handlers that process a number of errors that may occur during HP Fortran program execution. A default action is defined for each Fortran-specific error recognized by the HP Fortran RTL. The default actions described throughout this chapter occur unless overridden by explicit error-processing methods.
Unless you specify the /SYNCHRONOUS_EXCEPTIONS (Alpha only) qualifier when you compile the program, error reporting of exceptions may be inexact; the exception may not be reported until a few instructions after the one that caused the exception. This makes continuation from an exception trap not feasible.
The way in which the HP Fortran RTL actually processes errors depends on several factors:
The following FORTRAN command qualifiers are related to handling errors and exceptions:
The contents of the fields in run-time messages follow:
|%||The percent sign identifies the line as a message.|
|FOR||The facility code for Compaq Fortran 77 and HP Fortran.|
|severity||A single character that determines message severity. The types of run-time messages are: Fatal (F), Error (E), and Informational (I).|
|mnemonic||A 6- to 9-character name that uniquely identifies that message.|
|message_text||Explains the event or reason why the message appears.|
For example, the following message has a severity of Fatal, a mnemonic of ADJARRDIM, and message text of "adjustable array dimension error":
%FOR-F-ADJARRDIM, adjustable array dimension error
This must be corrected. The program cannot complete execution and is terminated when the error is encountered, unless for I/O statements the program uses the END, EOR, or ERR branch specifiers to transfer control, perhaps to a routine that uses the IOSTAT specifier (see Section 7.3.1 and Section 7.3.2). You can also continue from certain fatal-level messages by using a condition handler.
This should be corrected. The program may continue execution, but the output from this execution may be incorrect.
This should be investigated. The program continues executing, but output from this execution may be incorrect.
The severity depends on the source of the message. In some cases,
certain FORTRAN command qualifiers can change the severity level or
control whether messages are displayed (such as the /CHECK and
7.3 Handling Errors
When no recovery method is specified for a statement and a fatal-level error occurs, a message appears and the program terminates. To prevent program termination, you must include either an appropriate I/O error-handling specifier (see Section 7.3) or a condition handler that performs an unwind (see Chapter 14). The I/O error-handling specifier or condition handler might also handle error-level messages.
You can explicitly supplement or override default actions by using the following HP Fortran methods:
When a fatal error occurs during program execution, the HP Fortran RTL default action is to print an error message and terminate the program. You can establish an OpenVMS condition handler that performs an unwind for certain fatal errors.
These error-processing methods are complementary; you can use all of them within the same program. However, before attempting to write a condition handler, you should be familiar with the OpenVMS condition-handling facility (CHF) and with the condition-handling description in Chapter 14.
Using the END, EOR, or ERR branch specifiers in I/O statements prevent signaling (display) of errors, including secondary return values for file system errors, such as RMS errors. Using these specifiers prevent the transfer of control to a condition handler.
There are certain file system errors where no handler (condition handler or vector exception handler) exists. To obtain the secondary file system errors in these cases, remove the END, EOR, and ERR specifiers, recompile, relink, and rerun the program.
You do not need to remove the ERR or IOSTAT specifiers if you use a
vectored exception handler (established using SYS$SETEXV), which will
receive control instead of the ERR and IOSTAT specifiers. The ERRSNS
subroutine allows you to obtain secondary return values for file system
errors (see the HP Fortran for OpenVMS Language Reference Manual).
7.3.1 Using the ERR, EOR, and END Branch Specifiers
When an error, end-of-record, or end-of-file condition occurs during program execution, the HP Fortran RTL default action is to display a message and terminate execution of the program.
You can use the ERR, EOR, and END specifiers in I/O statements to override this default by transferring control to a specified point in the program. To override this default action, there are three branch specifiers you can use in I/O statements to transfer control to a specified point in the program:
If an END, EOR, or ERR branch specifier is present, and the corresponding condition occurs, no message is displayed and execution continues at the statement designated in the appropriate specifier.
For example, consider the following READ statement:
READ (8, 50, END=400) X,Y,Z
If an end-of-file condition occurs during execution of this statement, the contents of variables X, Y, and Z become undefined, and control is transferred to the statement at label 400. You can also add an ERR specifier to transfer control if an error condition occurs. Note that an end-of-file or end-of-record condition does not cause an ERR specifier branch to be taken.
When using nonadvancing I/O, use the EOR specifier to handle the end-of-record condition. For example:
150 FORMAT (F10.2, F10.2, I6) READ (UNIT=20, FMT=150, SIZE=X, ADVANCE='NO', EOR=700) A, F, I
You can also specify ERR as a keyword to such I/O statements as OPEN, CLOSE, or INQUIRE statement. For example:
OPEN (UNIT=10, FILE='FILNAM', STATUS='OLD', ERR=999)
If an error is detected during execution of this OPEN statement, control transfers to statement 999.