HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
The OpenVMS Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
13.12 Are VAX Hardware Emulators Available?
VAX emulators that operate on PC systems and/or on OpenVMS Alpha systems are available. For information on an alternative to using a VAX emulator--- on the available DECmigrate VAX executable image translator---please see Section 13.10.
>>> show * > env.dat >>> show conf > conf.dat >>> cat env.dat > fat:env.dat/dva0 >>> cat conf.dat > fat:conf.dat/dva0
>>> ls fat:env.dat/dva0 >>> ls fat:conf.dat/dva0
PALcode is a name assigned to a particular set of functions provided by
the SRM firmware. PALcode is used to provide low-level functions
required by higher-level operating system or application software,
functions which may not be directly available in Alpha hardware.
PALcode is implemented using available Alpha instructions and using the
Alpha processor, though PALcode operates in a mode which simplifies
programming. PALcode is also permitted access to processor-specific and
otherwise internal features of a particular Alpha microprocessor
implementation; microprocessor-specific features which are not easily
accessable to operating system or application code.
14.3.3 Alpha COM ports and VAX console serial line information?
This section contains information on the Alpha COM communication ports,
and related settings, as well as on the VAX console bulkhead and VAX
console serial line connection.
220.127.116.11 Which terminal device name is assigned to the COM ports?
On the DEC 2000 series (sometimes incorrectly known by the name of the system as sold for Microsoft Windows NT Alpha; as the DECpc 150 AXP series) on older OpenVMS Alpha releases, COM1 through COM4 are known as OPA0: through OPA3:. On all current OpenVMS releases, these ports are serviced by the terminal driver and not by the console OPDRIVER driver.
Often the easiest way to determine the OpenVMS terminal name assigned to the port is to connect a terminal, log in interactively, and look at the output of SHOW TERMINAL. (Device names can vary by OpenVMS version, as well as by the SRM console environment variable selection.)
For serial console hardware and related information, and for pin-outs
and related information, please see Section 14.3 and Section 14.26.
18.104.22.168 Which serial port is the console on the MicroVAX 3100?
Just to keep life interesting, the MicroVAX 3100 has some
"interesting" console ports behaviours based on the setting
of the BREAK enable switch. When the console is not enabled to respond
to BREAK, MMJ-1 is the console port. MMJ-3 will (confusingly) output
the results of the selftest in parallel with MMJ-1. When the console is
enabled to respond to BREAK, MMJ-3 becomes the console port, and MMJ-1
will (confusingly) output the results of selftest in parallel with
22.214.171.124 How can I set up an alternate console on a VAXstation?
Most VAXstation series systems and a few Alpha series systems have a switch -- most often labeled S3, largely for historical reasons---that enables one of the serial lines as the system console device; as OPA0:. This disables console output to the graphics display. (For a related behaviour, please see Section 11.10.)
All VAXstation 3100 series systems provide a S3 slide switch, though the oldest may be missing the cut-out through the enclosure that provides access to the switch. The slide switch is located near the diagnostic LED display. (The slide switch is accessable with the cover removed.)
Various members of the DEC 3000 series Alpha systems also have a similarly-labled S3 switch for selection of the alternate console.
The particular port that becomes the console can vary. The printer MMJ connection is used on all VAXstation 3100 series. On VAXstation II, the console DB9 is used, rather than the graphics display. On most (all?) AlphaStation series systems, typically the COM1 serial port becomes the console.
For information on registering software license product authorization
keys (PAKs), please see Section 5.6.2.
126.96.36.199 Please explain the back panel of the MicroVAX II
There are three controls on the console bulkhead of these systems:
Triangle-in-circle-paddle: halt enable. dot-in-circle: halt ([break]) is enabled, and auto-boot is disabled. dot-not-in-circle: halt ([break]) is disabled, and auto-boot is enabled. Three-position-rotary: power-up bootstrap behaviour arrow: normal operation. face: language inquiry mode. t-in-circle: infinite self-test loop. Eight-position-rotary: console baud rate selection select the required baud rate; read at power-up.
There are several different bulkheads involved, including one for the BA23 and BA123 enclosures, and one for the S-box (BA2xx) series enclosure. The console bulkheads typically used either the MMJ serial line connection, or the MicroVAX DB9 (not the PC DB9 pin-out), please see the descriptions of these in section Section 14.26. For available adapters, see Section 14.27.
Also present on the console bulkhead is a self-test indicator: a
single-digit LED display. This matches the final part of the countdown
displayed on the console or workstation, and can be used by a service
organization to determine the nature of a processor problem. The
particular countdown sequence varies by processor type, consult the
hardware or owner's manual for the processor, or contact the local
hardware service organization for information the self-test sequence
for a particular processor module. Note that self-tests 2, 1 and 0 are
associated with the transfer of control from the console program to the
(booting) operating system.
14.3.4 What are Alpha console environment variables?
Alpha systems have a variety of variables with values set up within the SRM system console. These environment variables control the particular behaviour of the console program and the system hardware, the particular console interface presented to the operating system, various default values for the operating system bootstrap, and related control mechanisms---in other words, "the environment variables provide an easily extensible mechanism for managing complex console state."
The specific environment variables differ by platform and by firmware version---the baseline set is established by the Alpha Architecture:
AUTO_ACTION ("BOOT", "HALT", "RESTART", any other value assumed to be HALT), BOOT_DEV, BOOTDEF_DEV, BOOTED_DEV, BOOT_FILE, BOOTED_FILE, BOOT_OSFLAGS, BOOTED_OSFLAGS, BOOT_RESET ("ON", "OFF"), DUMP_DEV, ENABLE_AUDIT ("ON", "OFF"), LICENSE, CHAR_SET, LANGUAGE, TTY_DEV.
OpenVMS Galaxy (vPars) firmware can add console environment variables beginning with such strings as LP_* and HP_*, and each particular console implementation can (and often does) have various sorts of platform-specific extensions beyond these variables. These variables allow both vPars (virtual partitions) and lPars and lPars (logical partition) support; vPars is a generic name for soft partitioning constructs such as OpenVMS Galaxy, while lPars is a generic name applied to hard partitioning constructs.
The contents of a core set of SRM console environment variables are
accessible from OpenVMS Alpha using the f$getenv lexical and the
service. (These calls are first documented in V7.2, but have been
present in OpenVMS Alpha for many releases.) Access to arbitary SRM
console environment variables is rather more involved, and not directly
available to application software operating outside of kernel-mode.
14.3.5 What are the boot control flag values?
Integrity, VAX and Alpha primary bootstraps support flag values; a
mechanism which permits the system manager to perform specific
customizations or site-specific debugging of the OpenVMS system
bootstrap. While very similar, there are differences among the boot
flag implementations for the various architectures.
188.8.131.52 What are the I64 IPB boot flag values?
The OpenVMS I64 primary bootstrap flags are processed within the IA-64 primary bootstrap image IPB.EXE; within the SYS$EFI.SYS structures. The primary bootstrap boot flags are largely parallel to those of OpenVMS Alpha (see Section 184.108.40.206, though the console and the console mechanisms used to specify the boot command, the boot flags, and boot command options do differ markedly.
You can specify the boot flags via an EFI environment variable VMS_FLAGS , or via the boot alias boot options mechanism, or by appending the requested boot flags onto the specification of VMS_LOADER.EFI.
To set the bootstrap flags environment variable at the EFI shell prompt, use:
Shell> SET VMS_FLAGS "0,1"
When you register an EFI boot alias (please see Section 14.4.5 for Intel Itanium terminology), you will be asked if you want to enter boot options, and what type. To add boot flags to a boot alias, select Unicode as the boot options type, and enter an SRM-like options string, such as the conversational bootstrap selected by the following example:
For related information on managing EFI boot aliases from OpenVMS I64, please see Section 14.3.10.
When using VMS_LOADER.EFI to request boot flags, you will want to specify the invocation as follows:
fsn:\efi\vms\vms_loader -flags 0,1
The above shows a conversational bootstrap request.
Typical boot flags are listed in Table 14-1.
|1||0,2||DEBUG||Load SYSTEM_DEBUG.EXE (XDELTA)|
|2||0,4||INIBPT||Stop at initial system breakpoints|
|16||0,10000||DBG_INIT||Enable verbose bootstrap messages|
|17||0,20000||USER_MSGS||Enable additional bootstrap messages|
|17||0,200000||?||Request for a bootstrap from USB keydisk|
For a conversational bootstrap of the OpenVMS I64 root SYS4 associated with the fs2: EFI file system device with full bootstrap messaging enabled, specify:
fs2:\efi\vms\vms_loader -flags 4,30001
The flags listed in Table 14-2 are passed (via register R5) to the OpenVMS Alpha primary bootstrap image APB.EXE. These flags control the particular behaviour of the bootstrap.
BOOT -FL root,flags
|1||DEBUG||Load SYSTEM_DEBUG.EXE (XDELTA)|
|2||INIBPT||Stop at initial system breakpoints if bit 1 set (EXEC_INIT)|
|3||DIAG||Diagnostic bootstrap (loads diagboot.exe)|
|4||BOOBPT||Stop at bootstrap breakpoints (APB and Sysboot)|
|5||NOHEADER||Secondary bootstrap does not have an image header|
|6||NOTEST||Inhibit memory test|
|7||SOLICIT||Prompt for secondary bootstrap file|
|8||HALT||Halt before transfer to secondary bootstrap|
|9||SHADOW||Boot from shadow set|
|11||PALCHECK||Disable PAL rev check halt|
|12||DEBUG_BOOT||Transfer to intermediate primary bootstrap|
|13||CRDFAIL||Mark CRD pages bad|
|14||ALIGN_FAULTS||Report unaligned data traps in bootstrap|
|15||REM_DEBUG||Allow remote high-level language debugger|
|16||DBG_INIT||Enable verbose boot messages in EXEC_INIT|
|17||USER_MSGS||Enable subset of verbose boot messages (user messages)|
|18||RSM||Boot is controlled by RSM|
|19||FOREIGN||Boot involves a foreign disk|
If you want to set the boot flags "permanently", use the SET BOOT_FLAGS command, e.g.:
>>> SET BOOT_OSFLAGS 0,1