HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
HP Fortran for OpenVMS
The following example shows an assumed-length character function:
CHARACTER*(*) FUNCTION REDO(CARG) CHARACTER*1 CARG DO I=1,LEN(REDO) REDO(I:I) = CARG END DO RETURN END FUNCTION
This function returns the value of its argument, repeated to fill the length of the function.
Within any given program unit, all references to an assumed-length character function must have the same length. In the following example, the REDO function has a length of 1000:
CHARACTER*1000 REDO, MANYAS, MANYZS MANYAS = REDO('A') MANYZS = REDO('Z')
Another program unit within the executable program can specify a different length. For example, the following REDO function has a length of 2:
CHARACTER HOLD*6, REDO*2 HOLD = REDO('A')//REDO('B')//REDO('C')
The following example shows a dynamic array-valued function:
FUNCTION SUB (N) REAL, DIMENSION(N) :: SUB ... END FUNCTION
However, if you use the RESULT keyword in a FUNCTION statement, you can specify a local variable name for the function result. In this case, all references to the function name are recursive calls, and the function name must not appear in specification statements.
The RESULT name must be different from the name of the function.
The following shows an example of a recursive function specifying a RESULT variable:
RECURSIVE FUNCTION FACTORIAL(P) RESULT(L) INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: P INTEGER L IF (P == 1) THEN L = 1 ELSE L = P * FACTORIAL(P - 1) END IF END FUNCTION
A function reference takes the following form:
funIs the name of the function subprogram.
a-argIs an actual argument optionally preceded by [keyword=], where keyword is the name of a dummy argument in the explicit interface for the function. The keyword is assigned a value when the procedure is invoked.
Each actual argument must be a variable, an expression, or the name of a procedure. (It must not be the name of an internal procedure, statement function, or the generic name of a procedure.)
When a function is referenced, each actual argument is associated with the corresponding dummy argument by its position in the argument list or by the name of its keyword. The arguments must agree in type and kind parameters.
Execution of the function produces a result that is assigned to the function name or to the result name, depending on whether the RESULT keyword was specified.
The program unit uses the result value to complete the evaluation of the expression containing the function reference.
If positional arguments and argument keywords are specified, the argument keywords must appear last in the actual argument list.
If a dummy argument is optional, the actual argument can be omitted.
If a dummy argument is specified with the INTENT attribute, its use may be limited. A dummy argument whose intent is not specified is subject to the limitations of its associated actual argument.
An actual argument associated with a dummy procedure must be the specific name of a procedure, or be another dummy procedure. Certain specific intrinsic function names must not be used as actual arguments (see Table 9-1).
Consider the following example:
X = 2.0 NEW_COS = COS(X) ! A function reference
Intrinsic function COS calculates the cosine of 2.0. The value --0.4161468 is returned (in place of COS(X)) and assigned to NEW_COS.
The SUBROUTINE statement is the initial statement of a subroutine subprogram. It takes the following form:
prefixIs one of the following:
Keyword Meaning RECURSIVE Permits direct recursion to occur (see Section 188.8.131.52). PURE Asserts that the procedure has no side effects (see Section 184.108.40.206). ELEMENTAL Restricted form of pure procedure that acts on one array element at a time (see Section 220.127.116.11).
nameIs the name of the subroutine.
d-arg-listIs a list of one or more dummy arguments or alternate return specifiers (*).
A subroutine is invoked by a CALL statement or defined assignment. When a subroutine is invoked, dummy arguments (if present) become associated with the corresponding actual arguments specified in the call.
Execution begins with the first executable construct or statement following the SUBROUTINE statement. Control returns to the calling program unit once the END statement (or a RETURN statement) is executed.
A subroutine subprogram cannot contain a FUNCTION statement, a BLOCK DATA statement, a PROGRAM statement, or another SUBROUTINE statement. ENTRY statements can be included to provide multiple entry points to the subprogram.
The following example shows a subroutine:
|CALL HELLO_WORLD||SUBROUTINE HELLO_WORLD|
|...||PRINT *, "Hello World"|
The following example uses alternate return specifiers to determine where control transfers on completion of the subroutine:
|CALL CHECK(A,B,*10,*20,C)||SUBROUTINE CHECK(X,Y,*,*,Q)|
|TYPE *, 'VALUE LESS THAN ZERO'||...|
|GO TO 30||50 IF (Z) 60,70,80|
|10 TYPE*, 'VALUE EQUALS ZERO'||60 RETURN|
|GO TO 30||70 RETURN 1|
|20 TYPE*, 'VALUE MORE THAN ZERO'||80 RETURN 2|
The SUBROUTINE statement argument list contains two dummy alternate return arguments corresponding to the actual arguments *10 and *20 in the CALL statement argument list.
The value of Z determines the return, as follows:
(An alternate return is an obsolescent feature in Fortran 95 and Fortran 90.)
funIs the name of the statement function.
d-argIs a dummy argument. A dummy argument can appear only once in any list of dummy arguments, and its scope is local to the statement function.
exprIs a scalar expression defining the computation to be performed.
Named constants and variables used in the expression must have been declared previously in the specification part of the scoping unit or made accessible by use or host association.
If the expression contains a function reference, the function must have been defined previously in the same program unit.
A statement function reference takes the following form:
funIs the name of the statement function.
a-argIs an actual argument.
When a statement function reference appears in an expression, the values of the actual arguments are associated with the dummy arguments in the statement function definition. The expression in the definition is then evaluated. The resulting value is used to complete the evaluation of the expression containing the function reference.
The data type of a statement function can be explicitly defined in a type declaration statement. If no type is specified, the type is determined by implicit typing rules in effect for the program unit.
Actual arguments must agree in number, order, and data type with their corresponding dummy arguments.
Except for the data type, declarative information associated with an entity is not associated with dummy arguments in the statement function; for example, declaring an entity to be an array or to be in a common block does not affect a dummy argument with the same name.
The name of the statement function cannot be the same as the name of any other entity within the same program unit.
Any reference to a statement function must appear in the same program unit as the definition of that function.
A statement function reference must appear as (or be part of) an expression. The reference cannot appear on the left side of an assignment statement.
A statement function must not be provided as a procedure argument.
The following are examples of statement functions:
REAL VOLUME, RADIUS VOLUME(RADIUS) = 4.189*RADIUS**3 CHARACTER*10 CSF,A,B CSF(A,B) = A(6:10)//B(1:5)
The following example shows a statement function and some references to it:
AVG(A,B,C) = (A+B+C)/3. ... GRADE = AVG(TEST1,TEST2,XLAB) IF (AVG(P,D,Q) .LT. AVG(X,Y,Z)) STOP FINAL = AVG(TEST3,TEST4,LAB2) ! Invalid reference; implicit ... ! type of third argument does not ... ! match implicit type of dummy argument
Implicit typing problems can be avoided if all arguments are explicitly typed.
The following statement function definition is invalid because it contains a constant, which cannot be used as a dummy argument:
REAL COMP, C, D, E COMP(C,D,E,3.) = (C + D - E)/3.
External procedures can be invoked by the main program or any procedure of an executable program.
In Fortran 95/90, external procedures can include internal procedures, as long as the internal procedures appear between a CONTAINS statement and the end of the procedure.
An external procedure can reference itself (directly or indirectly).
Internal procedures can appear in the main program, in an external subprogram, or in a module subprogram.
internal-subprogramIs a function or subroutine subprogram that defines the procedure. An internal subprogram must not contain any other internal subprograms.
An internal procedure can reference itself (directly or indirectly); it can be referenced in the execution part of its host and in the execution part of any internal procedure contained in the same host (including itself).
The interface of an internal procedure is always explicit.
Every HPF internal subprogram must be of the same extrinsic kind as its
host, and any internal subprogram whose extrinsic kind is not given
explicitly is assumed to be of that extrinsic kind.
Every HPF internal subprogram must be of the same extrinsic kind as its host, and any internal subprogram whose extrinsic kind is not given explicitly is assumed to be of that extrinsic kind.
The following example shows an internal procedure:
PROGRAM COLOR_GUIDE ... CONTAINS FUNCTION HUE(BLUE) ! An internal procedure ... END FUNCTION HUE END PROGRAM
When a procedure is referenced in an executable program, the program unit invoking the procedure can use one or more actual arguments to pass values to the procedure's dummy arguments. The dummy arguments are associated with their corresponding actual arguments when control passes to the subprogram.
In general, when control is returned to the calling program unit, the last value assigned to a dummy argument is assigned to the corresponding actual argument.
If argument keywords are not used, argument association is positional. The first dummy argument becomes associated with the first actual argument, and so on. If argument keywords are used, arguments are associated by the keyword name, so actual arguments can be in a different order than dummy arguments.
A keyword is required for an argument only if a preceding optional argument is omitted or if the argument sequence is changed.
A scalar dummy argument can be associated with only a scalar actual argument.
If a dummy argument is an array, it must be no larger than the array that is the actual argument. You can use adjustable arrays to process arrays of different sizes in a single subprogram.
A dummy argument referenced as a subprogram must be associated with an actual argument that has been declared EXTERNAL or INTRINSIC in the calling routine.
If a scalar dummy argument is of type character, its length must not be greater than the length of its associated actual argument.
If the character dummy argument's length is specified as *(*) (assumed length), it uses the length of the associated actual argument.
Once an actual argument has been associated with a dummy argument, no action can be taken that affects the value or availability of the actual argument, except indirectly through the dummy argument. For example, if the following statement is specified:
CALL SUB_A (B(2:6), B(4:10))
B(4:6) must not be defined, redefined, or become undefined through either dummy argument, since it is associated with both arguments. However, B(2:3) is definable through the first argument, and B(7:10) is definable through the second argument.
Similarly, if any part of the actual argument is defined through a dummy argument, the actual argument can only be referenced through that dummy argument during execution of the procedure. For example, if the following statements are specified:
MODULE MOD_A REAL :: A, B, C, D END MODULE MOD_A PROGRAM TEST USE MOD_A CALL SUB_1 (B) ... END PROGRAM TEST SUBROUTINE SUB_1 (F) USE MOD_A ... WRITE (*,*) F END SUBROUTINE SUB_1
Variable B must not be directly referenced during the execution of SUB_1 because it is being defined through dummy argument F. However, B can be indirectly referenced through F (and directly referenced when SUB_1 completes execution).
The following sections provide more details on arguments: