HP OpenVMS Systems
HP Advanced Server for OpenVMS
By default, the Advanced Server can support up to 10 simultaneous
external authentication logon requests (signons). You can modify this
maximum to suit the server requirements, using the Configuration
Manager. For more details, see Section 188.8.131.52, Specifying the Maximum Number of Concurrent Signons.
184.108.40.206 Synchronizing Passwords
When a user changes the OpenVMS password using the OpenVMS command SET PASSWORD, and external authentication is set for the user, OpenVMS forwards the password change request to the Advanced Server. When the password change request is successfully processed, OpenVMS updates the OpenVMS user password. If Advanced Server is not running when the OpenVMS command SET PASSWORD is executed, the domain password is not changed.
When users change their passwords from their client workstations, or the server administrator changes a password with the ADMINISTER command SET PASSWORD, the Advanced Server processes the password change as usual. The OpenVMS password is synchronized when the user next logs in to OpenVMS. All password changes are synchronized. When an OpenVMS user no longer has the external authentication flag set, the password for the OpenVMS user account is the same as the one that was last set by Advanced Server.
When users change their password on the OpenVMS system or on their client computer, they should use the new password to log in to OpenVMS. If, for some reason, the Advanced Server software is down at the time of the OpenVMS login, users can use their old OpenVMS password to log in, but only if you have enabled overriding of external authentication. In this case, privileged users can enter the /LOCAL_PASSWORD qualifier after their OpenVMS user name at the login prompt, as explained in Section 220.127.116.11, Bypassing External Authentication When the Network Is Down. This causes OpenVMS to perform local authentication.
Password synchronization may fail due to the different sets of valid characters allowed by OpenVMS and Advanced Server. Keep this in mind when changing the password of an externally authenticated user.
If you want to disable external authentication, then before starting the Advanced Server, define the SYS$SINGLE_SIGNON logical in SYSTARTUP_VMS.COM to a value of 0, as in the following example:
$ DEFINE/SYSTEM/EXECUTIVE SYS$SINGLE_SIGNON 0
For more information, refer to the HP OpenVMS Guide to System Security.
18.104.22.168 Bypassing External Authentication When the Network Is Down
External authentication cannot occur if a network connection is required and the network is down. However, as a temporary solution, privileged users can enter the /LOCAL_PASSWORD qualifier after the OpenVMS user name at the login prompt, to specify local authentication. Be sure to specify the OpenVMS user name and password when using the /LOCAL_PASSWORD qualifier.
Because using the /LOCAL_PASSWORD qualifier effectively overrides the security policy established by the system manager, it is allowed only when the user's account has SYSPRV as an authorized privilege. This allows the system manager to gain access to the system when the network is down.
When Bit 1 is set in the SYS$SINGLE_SIGNON logical name, nonprivileged users who are normally externally authenticated can log in locally (the /LOCAL_PASSWORD qualifier need not be specified).
For more information about the /LOCAL_PASSWORD qualifier for the login
command line, refer to the HP OpenVMS Guide to System Security.
22.214.171.124 Logging On to Externally Authenticated Accounts
OpenVMS accepts the user name in one of the following formats for user accounts set for external authentication:
The form of the user name string determines the order in which OpenVMS verifies the logon:
Because external authentication depends on host mapping information, it is important to set up user accounts and host mapping carefully. For example, if the same user name exists in the Advanced Server and OpenVMS, but they are not the same user, external authentication may not work as you expect.
In the following examples, you have Advanced Server running on OpenVMS node VMS1 in the domain SaleOffice, with network users Smith and J_Smith and OpenVMS users Smith and V_Smith:
$ ADMINISTER ADD HOSTMAP SMITH V_SMITH $ ADMINISTER ADD HOSTMAP J_SMITH SMITH
$ ADMINISTER ADD HOSTMAP SMITH V_SMITH
You can set up an OpenVMS account to be externally authenticated by a trusted domain in your network. To enable this feature, you must include the trusted domain name in the data field for the server configuration parameter HostMapDomains in the OpenVMS Registry. See Section 7.3, Managing Server Configuration Parameters Stored in the OpenVMS Registry.
For example, if your OpenVMS system is in the SaleOffice domain, and this domain trusts the Marketing domain, set up OpenVMS user Jones to be externally authenticated by the Marketing domain as follows:
$ REGUTL :== $SYS$SYSTEM:PWRK$REGUTL $ REGUTL SET PARAM/CREATE VMSSERVER HOSTMAPDOMAINS Marketing
The local server's domain is the default domain for users when external authentication is established. If you want to change the default domain for users using external authentication, define the Advanced Server logical PWRK$ACME_DEFAULT_DOMAIN on the system as follows:
$ DEFINE/SYS/EXE PWRK$ACME_DEFAULT_DOMAIN domain_name
where domain_name is the name of the new default domain. After
defining this logical, if a user does not specify a domain name at
login, the system will use the specified default domain for external
126.96.36.199 Requirement for External Authentication Over DECnet-Plus
To allow users to be externally authenticated over DECnet-Plus for
OpenVMS, set the system parameter NET_CALLOUTS to 255. This enables
Advanced Server user ID mapping and authentication for network logins.
188.8.131.52 SYS$SINGLE_SIGNON logical explained
The sys$single_signon logical is used to configure the behavior of external authentication. It consists out of a number of bits that are represented by a decimal number. By adding these numbers we retrieve a decimal number the logical refers to.
Bit 0 switch external authentication on/off Bit 1 enable the /local switch for all users regardless of the syspriv privilege Bit 2 not used Bit 3 enable forced uppercase Bit 4 disable password sync
As an example, the 4 most commonly used settings are described:
$ DEFINE/SYS/EXE SYS$SINGLE_SIGNON "0"
External authentication is disabled, users with the EXTAUTH flag set can not logon to OpenVMS using the /local switch without having the syspriv privilege set.
$ DEFINE/SYS/EXE SYS$SINGLE_SIGNON "1"
This means external authentication is enabled, users with the EXTAUTH flag set can not logon to OpenVMS using the /local switch without having the syspriv privilege set.
$ DEFINE/SYS/EXE SYS$SINGLE_SIGNON "2"
This means external authentication is disabled, but users with the EXTAUTH flag set can logon to OpenVMS providing the /local switch (regardless of the syspriv privilege is set).
$ DEFINE/SYS/EXE SYS$SINGLE_SIGNON "3"
This means external authentication is switched on and users with the
EXTAUTH flag set can also logon to OpenVMS providing the /local switch
(regardless of the syspriv privilege is set).
184.108.40.206 Applications Using External Authentication
Applications that use system functions like $LOGINOUT or $SET_PASSWORD
use External Authentication. Most applications that use OpenVMS cannot
directly verify the user name and password details in the SYSUAF.
However, these applications use normal calls to the LOGINOUT.EXE file
to perform this task. However, some applications such as SYSMAN and
MAIL, bypass this method. Earlier FTP from UCX was bypassing this
method, but this problem is resolved in TCP/IP V5.1 release.
220.127.116.11 Data Structures Used in External Authentication
During each user logon attempt, the user name and password details are requested by the LOGINOUT.EXE file. This data is passed on to the Advanced Server which checks in SYS$SYSTEM:SYSUAF.DAT if the user has external authentication enabled. If the user has external authentication enabled , then Advanced Server validates the user name and password details with the SAM database. The SAM consists of the following files having no filename extensions:
PWRK$LMDOMAINS:<DOMAIN NAME> PWRK$LMDATAFILES:ACL., BUILTIN. AND LSA.
The <domain name> file contains the list of users and their logon
details. The LSA file contains mapping information between the OpenVMS
usernames and the Windows usernames. When the validation procedure is
completed, the matching record of the SYSUAF is checked for process
settings, identifiers, and the login directory.
3.2 Managing Advanced Server Groups
Groups are collections of user accounts and other groups. When you add a user to a group, the user has all the rights and permissions granted to the group. This provides an easy way to grant common capabilities to sets of users. (For additional information about planning Advanced Server groups, refer to the HP Advanced Server for OpenVMS Concepts and Planning Guide.)
OpenVMS system groups are unrelated to Advanced Server domain groups.
You use groups to manage access to resources like directories, files, and printers. To do this, assign permissions to the resource, specifying the group names, and add the user accounts to the groups. To change the permissions for a group, add or remove the permissions on the resource for the group, rather than for each user. Or, if you need to give a user access to specific resources (for example, certain directories and files), add the user's account to the appropriate group rather than changing permissions on each individual resource. Maintaining permissions for a group is simpler than maintaining permissions for individual user accounts.
Table 3-3 summarizes how to organize local and global groups.
|Users and Needs||Appropriate Group To Use|
|User accounts from this domain requiring access to the servers and workstations of this domain or of trusting domains||Global group|
|User accounts from trusting domains requiring access to the servers of this domain||Local group|
|Global groups from this domain requiring access to the servers of this domain||Local group|
|Global groups from trusting domains requiring access to the servers of this domain||Local group|
The Advanced Server creates several built-in groups automatically during installation. Each built-in group has a unique set of access rights. To give one such set of access rights to a user account, add the user to the appropriate group. By default, all users belong to the built-in group Domain Users.
Table 3-4 lists the built-in groups, with their group type (global or local), and their default members.
|Group Name||Group Type||Description||Default Members|
|Account Operators||Local||Members can administer domain user and group accounts.||None|
|Administrators||Local||Members can fully administer the domain.||Administrator, Domain Admins|
|Backup Operators||Local||Members can bypass file security to back up files.||None|
|Domain Admins||Global||Designated administrators of the domain.||Administrator|
|Domain Guests||Global||All domain guests.||Guests|
|Domain Users||Global||All domain users.||Administrator, user accounts|
|Guests||Local||Users granted guest access to the domain.||Domain Guests|
|Print Operators||Local||Members can administer domain printers.||None|
|Server Operators||Local||Members can administer domain servers.||None|
|Users||Local||Ordinary users.||Domain Users|
To set up a new user group, use the ADD GROUP command. To create a local group, include the /LOCAL qualifier on the command line. For example, to add the local group MUNCHKINS, enter the following command. Note that the description of the group is enclosed in quotation marks. If you do not specify the group type, the default is to add the group as a global group.
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> ADD GROUP MUNCHKINS/DESCRIPTION="Oz local group"/LOCAL %PWRK-S-GROUPADD, group "MUNCHKINS" added to domain "LANDOFOZ" LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> SHOW GROUPS Groups in domain "LANDOFOZ": Group Name Type Description --------------------- ----------- ------------------------------------- Account Operators Local Members can administer domain user and group accounts Administrators Local Members can fully administer the domain Backup Operators Local Members can bypass file security to back up files DEVAS Global DEVIS Global Domain Admins Global Designated administrators of the domain Domain Guests Global All domain guests Domain Users Global All domain users Guests Local Users granted guest access to the domain MONKEYS Global Users in the Land of Oz MUNCHKINS Local Oz local group Print Operators Local Members can administer domain printers Replicator Local Supports file replication in a domain Server Operators Local Members can administer domain servers Users Local Ordinary users Total of 15 groups LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
You can add users to groups in any of the following ways:
Local groups can include users from domains other than the one currently being administered. To specify a user account from another domain, a trust relationship must be established that allows the domain being administered to trust the domain where the user account is defined.
To specify a user account or global group in a trusted domain, enter a
domain-qualified name (domain-name\member-name), such
as KANSAS\DOLE, where KANSAS is the name of the trusted domain, and
DOLE is the user or group name defined in the trusted domain. If you
omit a domain name, the user or group is assumed to be defined in the
domain being administered.
18.104.22.168 Adding Members to a New Group
To add members to a new group, include the /MEMBERS qualifier on the ADD GROUP command. For example, to add a new group MUNCHKINS and specify the group members SCARECROW and STRAWMAN, enter the following command:
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> ADD GROUP MUNCHKINS/MEMBERS=(SCARECROW,STRAWMAN) %PWRK-S-GROUPADD, group "MUNCHKINS" added to domain "LANDOFOZ" LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>